Sunday, February 23, 2020

Humanities Ethics Research paper on Embryonic stem cell research

Humanities Ethics on Embryonic stem cell - Research Paper Example Research on the ES cells has then brought to the fore certain considerations with regard to human ethics. For the research to take place, the human embryo has to be harvested in order to investigate the phenomenon of interests. A balance cannot however be established between succeeding in helping another life using the embryo as it continues to exist. What are the ethical dilemmas involved in the embryonic stem cell researches? Despite the hot debate that surrounds the research use of embryonic stem cells, they offer better opportunity for harnessing certain therapies. Due to the controversy, most of the countries have adopted their own different rules that regulate the application of the Human Embryonic cells in research. Opinion is divided on what the value of human life is and the life of the embryo. It then exudes an ethical dilemma that complicates the application of the ES cells in solving most of the clinical problems (James, 45). The moral dilemma establishes a situation in w hich a choice has to be made from the two existing sensitive options. One, there is the duty prevent or relieve patients from chronic pains and two, the duty to respect the inherent value of human life. ... It has been however been difficult to approve one option vis-a-vis the other. The arguments then goes that it is not ethical to destroy embryo given the fact that they possess full moral status beginning from fertilization and as they progresses through maturity. Others observe that an embryo should be considered as a person despite the fact that it is still an embryo (James, 45). They espouse the retention of life of the embryo by stating that there is a continuous process involved in the life of an embryo beginning from fertilization. They note that just like an infant is considered a human being then is the embryo. The argument goes further that people would tend to dismiss the significance of an embryo as a person just because they do not have the characteristics of a human being (Holland, 43). This should not be the angle of justifications because through the process of growth, the embryo will develop the said attributes. They concur that it is arbitrary to determine the period or stage when personhood commences, hence an embryo should not be dismissed as not being a person (Holland, 43). However, another explosive counter argument has continued to make decisions on the ES cells application very difficult. It explains that an embryo lacks the justification levels of being described as a person (Holland, 43). This is because unlike humans they do not have emotional, psychological and physical properties exhibited by humans or persons. As such there is no interest at all that is demonstrated by the embryo to regard protection and should be used to help persons who are in deeper pains with their lives hanging on the balance (James, 45). Another argument indicates a â€Å"cut-off† point at 14

Friday, February 7, 2020

Mind and Consciousness Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Mind and Consciousness Questions - Essay Example John Searle defines consciousness to consist of inner, qualitative, subjective states and processes of sentience or awareness. The subjectivity of consciousness is one of the issues that John Searle seeks to clarify. He argues out that consciousness is subject to some human or animal. All conscious states according to him have first person ontology and not third person ontology therefore they can only exist when experienced by some human or animal agent and it is therefore subject to the existence of a human or animal. I.e. it is dependent on the existence of an agent (human or animal) (Searle, 1980). Searle also points out that consciousness is purely a biological process in that is exclusively caused by neurobiological progressions and is realized in the brain structures. He however argues that it is different from other biological phenomena due to its qualitativeness, intentionality, subjectivity and unity traits. He likens the way the brain unites all of the variety of our differ ent stimulus inputs into a single unified conscious experience to the way the visual system binds all of the different stimulus inputs into a single unified visual percept (Searle, 1980). Searle’s arguments are sensible in that they show sense on the connection between the state of the mind and consciousness. The fact that consciousness is a biological process explains how conscious states are processed and how they come to be. The explanations give greater insight to what consciousness is. Consciousness cannot occur without the interconnections between various aspects like sight and the mind. Various biological processes involving the brain have to take place for consciousness to be in place. One does not just become aware of their surroundings or environment through sight only. Seeing has to be accompanied by conceptualization of the environment for one to make a judgment on what he/she is seeing. Consciousness is therefore not a one instance thing but a process comprised o f a number of activities and stages. I therefore support the argument that consciousness is a biological process and it is subjective. Semantic knowledge can be defined as established knowledge pertaining objects, facts and word meanings. They bear based on facts and the knowledge is shown by referencing of words. A good example is the statement, ` a snake is not a fast runner, in fact, and it cannot run at all.’ This is a representation of semantic knowledge because it points out a fact that depends on the referent of the word run. Syntactic knowledge on the other hand is basically linguistic knowledge that can be stated without a reference to the words they refer to. An example of syntactic knowledge is the statement `there are rampant cases of food insecurity and illiteracy in third world countries’ (Levy, Bayley, & Squire, 2004). This represents syntactic knowledge because it brings out the intended information or knowledge without having to use references that rel ates to expertise in grammar. The form of knowledge basically entails knowledge by description. The way I can describe a past experience I had is basically a form of knowledge. There are three major forms of knowledge namely intellectual knowledge which entails collection of facts, knowledge of states which entail human emotional feelings and the real knowledge which is basically what is considered as the reality. The content of knowledge on the other hand, is a prior knowledge on an issue one is trying to

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

I-phone and I-teach Essay Example for Free

I-phone and I-teach Essay The highly anticipated and much celebrated release of the newest and perhaps hippest cellular phone on the market has spurred a number of discussions on the applicability of these devices to other forums. With an increasingly large number of prepubescent teens and children carrying cellular phones everywhere they go, a number of educators have begun to inquire as to its applicability as a teaching aid while there are some who argue that cellular phones have no place in today’s educational institutions. There is certainly no clear yes or no answer to this issue and instead it is important to arrive at a certain compromise in order to resolve this issue. There are basically two schools of thought behind this issue, the pros and the cons. The first argues that the changing times and evolving technology necessitate the use of these new devices in order to improve educational methods and take advantage of the ever decreasing attention span of students with regard to traditional teaching methods. The second school of thought, on the other hand, argues that the older methods which have been tested and tried are always better and thus these distractions (cellular phones) should be strictly kept out of classrooms. In order to, however, come up with a reasonable discourse concerning this topic it is first important to examine just how these devices have affected classroom activities. â€Å"Cell phones connect friends and families. In a moment, across the country or oversees a parent can call his son to see whether he is doing alright†. Businessmen can make their business deals and get everything done when away from office. Newer programs event take advantage of the cameras that most of today’s cellular phone models have by allowing one to take a picture of a page and have that file converted into a document that can be edited as reported in the October 29, 2007 issue of Newsweek entitled, â€Å"How to Make the Cellular Phone a Portable Scanner. † (Ellison, 2007, p. 1) In the same way that businessmen take advantage of the ever increasing conveniences that cellular phones have provided, students at schools all over the country communicate frequently with each other through the use of cell phones and this is the case of concern for most of the country’s school administrators (Armbruster-Sandoval, 2005, p. 64) The first school of thought, as presented earlier, argues that instead of banning these cellular phones from classrooms, an alternative can be reached. There is no need to reject this technology advancement but rather there is a need to embrace it and take advantage of it. With the average classroom attention span in the United States dropping, more and more educators have come to realize that there is a pressing concern to come up with new methods of teaching that is able to reach out to these children and one of these solutions is the cellular phone. In response to this, however, detractors have argued that this instant method of communication has its own drawbacks as well. Cellular phones are said foster interpersonal relationships as opposed to direct communication which provides a certain level of personal interaction. The essential factor or edge of having the instructor or teacher personally present to ensure that the student is able to learn will certainly be diminished by using cellular phones as a mode of conveying lessons and learning modules. The second bone of contention with regard to cellular phone use in the classrooms has arisen out of the recent traumatic events that have rocked the American educational institutions. The Columbine tragedy and even perhaps 9-11 have made parents more concerned over the safety of their children and have demanded that schools allow the children to bring these devices into the classroom. In response to this rising safety issue, more and more schools in the United States have begun lifting the ban on cellular phones in classrooms (Shaw, 2005, p. 1). When Mayor Bloomberg banned cellular phones from New York public schools, most of the uproar that resulted from the institution of that policy came, not from the school children as previously anticipated, but rather from concerned parents who argued that the lack public payphones in the area made it more dangerous for their children (Williams, 2006, p. 1). While certainly it may not have an effect on the lessons that these students learn in classroom, it does affect the quality of education a child may receive since a concerned parent may relocate the child to safer place which may not provide as good a quality of education as the previous school. While there is certainly no doubt that the safety of children is of the highest priority, there is also a need to educate today’s youth if they are to stand a chance of surviving in this world. Another issue that has been presented is that cell phones lead to the deterioration of writing skills as the use of the text messaging feature leads to what has been termed txt-lingo. For some, â€Å"text messages, a popular phone feature has affected the English language† â€Å"That is (that the use of) abbreviated messages has also affected the use of vowels† (Silin, 1999, p. 20). This issue has even been made worse by the fact that the new dictionaries or rather predictive text feature on cellular phones make it easier for students to just tap away at the keypad with the phone doing the corresponding spelling changes. The loss of not only personal but grammatical communication skills is indeed an issue which must be tackled in response to the topic on whether or not children should be allowed to bring cellular phones into the classroom. It is important to remember, however, that even though the above argument may present a grain of truth, learning is simply much more that just missing vowels and spelling. Education has never been confined to the teaching of English but rather even to the discussion of the propriety of bringing cellular phones into the classrooms (Shaw, 2005, p. 1). As such, to even argue that cellular phones should not be brought into the classrooms because it leads to bad spelling skills would be totally disregard the other benefits that can be derived from the use of such a device. Benefits such as being able to send images of certain objects that may be used for a lively and scholarly discussion in class, encouraging discourses between students over certain topics and certainly the building of foundations for the educational improvement of today’s youth, far outweigh the simple problem of lacking vowels which can be easily remedied (Shaw, 2005, p. 1). Perhaps the answer to this problem lies in the students themselves who use these devices as argued be certain concerned parents. There are some parents, who can claim that their children are very responsible, and they know when to put on or put off the cell phone and therefore should be allowed to use cell phones even in schools (Fretcher, 2000, p. 69). According to Armbrustor-Sandoval, â€Å"Teenagers have learned to heavily rely on cell phones† thus transforming this into a serious issue. This is why the government is contemplating on banning cellular phones in not only classrooms but inside campuses as well. Banning cellular phones in most educational institutions is a good idea but some exceptions should be allowed since cellular phones can be used in reporting emergencies and the like (Armbrustor-Sandoval, 2005, p. 71). If parents cannot control their own children with regard to the use of cellular phones in education institutions, the question that begs to be asked therefore is whether or not the government is more qualified to make that decision and enforce is it for the students. There is no doubt from this brief discussion that there are indeed a number of pros and cons concerning this issue. On one hand, allowing the use of cellular phones promotes the safety of students and minimizes the concern that parents naturally have over their children and at the same time, the use of cellular phones presents new opportunities to extend teaching to beyond the confines of the classroom. The cons of this issue can be basically be summarized in a single thought which is the concern over the deterioration of quality of education a child will receive in an environment which may no longer be perceived as conducive for teaching if the use of cellular phones is allowed. Cellular phones have improved dramatically over the last few years. With the rate of technological advancement today, it is not far off into the future when cellular phones will be able to do certain things that were but unimaginable in the present. The question, however, is whether or not all these advances will remain to be benefits for just a certain group or if they can be used to improve every aspect of life (as most of the cellular phones are currently trying to do i. e. I-phone). The benefits and drawbacks are certainly very clear. The problem for the government and most educational policy makers is on how to balance these benefits and drawbacks so as to be able to take full advantage of the situation (Shaw, 2005, p. 1). As such, the only solution that remains is coming up with a well thought out cellular phone policy for the school in order for them to be able to continue to reflect the society which they serve. References: Armbrustor-Sandoval, R (2005): Is Another World possible? Is another classroom possible? Radical pedagogy. Activity and social change; social justice, vol. 32 Foust, R. C. , Soukup, C. (2006); Do I Exist? Transcendent subject and secrets in the sixth sense; Western Journal of communication, Vol. 70. Fretcher, H. G. (2000); Power up, Don’t Power Down: Barring students form cell phones, my space, and other communication technologies. Once they enter, the classroom is the wrong approach. A better move would be integrating. Those tools into instructions; The journal (Technological Horizons in Education), Vol. 33 Luke, A. D. (2005); Getting the big picture; community science. Methods that capture context; American journal of community psychology Vol. 35. Shaw, Katherine (2005) Students and Cell Phones: Controversy in the Classroom from

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Pilgrimage for Christians :: Papers

Pilgrimage for Christians This question has a lot or arguments for both sides, which will be discussed here. The Christian Church itself is not entirely sure of whether or not pilgrimage should be practised, and different denominations have different views. Pilgrimage can help Christians a great deal. Pilgrims grow closer to God during pilgrimage and pilgrimages can inspire them to spread the word of God when they return from the trip. If there are having doubts over their faith in God, pilgrimages can make them feel close to God, and they can believe in him without doubt again. It is difficult to find arguments against pilgrimage in terms of what could be done in the time taken up by the trip, because pilgrimages do not take a long time now. A person's life could be dramatically changed by a pilgrimage and it could make them view the world in a completely different way, after only a few days of devotion to God. In defence of pilgrimage, it has happened for a very long time, since the start of the Christian faith, even though there is no reference to it in the Bible. Some branches of the Christian church, particularly the Roman Catholic church, judge matters on the Bible and on church traditions, which would make pilgrimage a good thing for the one reason that it has been going on for so long. There are also many reasons why pilgrimage is not considered a necessary thing for Christians to embark on. Some would argue that Christians' time should be spend helping people, preaching and encouraging other to adopt Christians beliefs. Some Protestants would also say that there is no real evidence of pilgrimage in the Bible, so it is not a Christian idea and should not happen. With the exception perhaps of the Holy Land, sites of pilgrimage are defined sometimes by only one witness who claims to have had a vision or a miracle. These sources cannot always be trusted, which makes some Christians critical of Pilgrimage. Others would argue, however, that

Monday, January 13, 2020

Brock article 1 Essay

(10) In understanding the idea presented by Brock as far as the idea of professional norms are voluntarily adopted, it is essential to point out the two elements that go together with it. The first one involves the creation of norms and values of a specific profession that is often imposed unto its members (Brock,). In this idea, the organization should also coordinate and collaborate with related agencies and institutions that specialize in such area. The second idea refers to the ability of each professional to directly adhere to the norms his/her organization provides (Brock,). It is through such entry that the individual takes on these facets accordingly. (11) The term conventional compromise provided by Brock in the article revolves around the question and issue of moral implications in the practice and facilitation of medicine. Under this facet, the term revolves around a â€Å"physician/pharmacist who has a serious moral objection providing a service/product to a patient/customer is not required to do so† (Brock, 2008, p. 194). At the same time, it is in here that there are several conditions that must also be looked into before saying that a particular case or issue has undergone a conventional compromise. These facets include (1) proper information so as to the facilitation of service/product, (2) proper referrals to other professionals who can provide, and (3) the second facet will not cause burden or difficulty for the patient (Brock, 2008). Under the first facet, there needs to be proper support and ground for the facilitation of a service or mechanism so as to fit the described example. It is in here that active communication about the practice must be given to any patient before declining its prescription or rendering of service (Brock, 2008). On the second facet, it requires the ability of any medical professional to have access to networks that have relatively opinions as theirs as far as the issue is concerned. This will then satisfy the condition that patients can seek for alternatives of providers of such device/service (Brock, 2008). Lastly, there must be careful consideration as far as its suitability and preference of patients are concerned. Since these ideas are prone to subjectivity, medical professionals must then establish these areas to connote the term conventional compromise (Brock, 2008) (12) In responding to the case of the pharmacist, Brock would probably argue against the notion set by the pharmacist. This is because this profession is part of an organization wherein the norms and objectives are stipulated accordingly (Brock, 2008). The action committed by the person is only a matter of moral conscience and does not solely revolve around the basic standpoint of the profession. Likewise, foregoing the facilitation of contraceptives as an option disregards the fact that the organization he/she is part of considers this as an option for practice (Brock, 2008). These are some tenets that is included when she agreed to be part of the institution and agency and collaborated with standards provided by concerned agencies (Brock, 2008). Seeing this disposition, Brock would then argue to the pharmacist that he/she practice a conventional compromise wherein she will actively provide and designate a professional who may think and view the issue differently from his/her perspective. This a way to protect both the opinion and value set of the pharmacist and ability of the patient to recognize the possible options available for him/her (Brock, 2008). By doing this, it can prevent conflict and questions surrounding the ability of such medical professional to provide numerous options for patients despite the differences in opinions and values. Reference Brock, D. W. (2008) Conscientious refusal by physicians and pharmacists: who is obligated and why? in Springer Science. Retrieved June 25, 2009. 187-200.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

University Vs Northern Arizona University - 822 Words

College Search Arizona State University and Northern Arizona University are two schools that I’ve been accepted in. I would like to go to GCU, but I’m not sure if I’ll be accepted. If I don’t get accepted I would want to attend Northern Arizona University full time. I would also like to live on campus only at NAU. If I go to another university I will just plan on still living with my parents. School Profile Arizona State University’s tuition and fees comes to a total of $10,522 (ASU Tuition, 1). Housing costs will be $8,123 and meals will be $4, 872 The cost for book and supplies will be $1000 every year depending on what courses that are going to be taken. ASU has a total of about 71, 946 that including their other schools. ASU was the†¦show more content†¦If I attended ASU I will be able to live with my parents and save some money. I’ve visited the ASU campus and really liked how its close to home. Although there is a large student population I would still like to attend ASU. They offer a very good biochemistry program that I would like to major in. Campus Tours I have had a total of 4 university tours. The university that I liked was GCU and NAU. I loved the NAU campus, it was so beautiful. I really liked how the camps looked after they remodeled mostly all the buildings. It just made the place look at more modern and I liked how that looks. Another reason why liked NAU was because the weather up north is nice and cool. The appearance of the school would have to be my favorite part of the NAU tour. During the tour we walked around the whole campus and were told where the important places were. There was very interesting, the walk-in sky dome. The walk-in sky dome is a public place open to everyone, I also visited GCU and I went on tour to see their medical program. I got to see cadavers that students use to study. The students would show us parts of the bodies and would tell us what a specific part of the body does. I also liked the campus too, but the 2 times I went to visit I went on a tour there was always some kind of construction being done. The dorms were a bit small, but I know that I’ll get used to living with someone else that’s not my parents. RoomShow MoreRelatedOur Community Based Outreach Initiatives For Additional Physicians And Allied Health Personnel1877 Words   |  8 Pagesoutreach initiatives to include additional physicians and allied health personnel. Integration Status: In 2015, the University of Arizona Health Network and Banner Health merged to form Banner University Medicine, consisting of Banner University Medical Center - Tucson, Banner University Medical Center - South Campus, Banner University Medical Center - Phoenix, and Banner University Medical Group. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Examples of French Pronunciation Ai and Ais

The letters Ai in French  can be pronounced in one of three ways. The following are general guidelines to the pronunciation of AI (though there are, as always, exceptions): Pronunciation Rules Ai is usually pronounced like È (like the E in bed), including when it is followed by S.When a verb ends in -ai, it is pronounced like É (more or less like the A in gave). It is important to distinguish between these two sounds, because they can change the meaning. Je parlai (passà © simple) is not pronounced like je parlais (imperfect).​ Note: The same phenomenon occurs with je parlerai (future) and je parlerais (conditional), at least according to some French speakers. There have been numerous debates about this, but basically, it comes down to regional variations: some native speakers pronounce them differently. Anyone who claims that there is no difference simply doesnt pronounce or even hear it. Examples Click on the links below to hear the words pronounced in French: frais  Ã‚   (fresh, cool)lait  Ã‚   (milk)je parlerai  Ã‚   (I will talk)je parlerais  Ã‚   (I would talk)je taime  Ã‚   (I love you)