Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Stereotyping And Its Effects On Our Social Lives - 1766 Words

Stereotyping can be a useful tool in how human beings navigate the world, however it can have negative impact on our social lives. Stereotyping was an important evolutionary tool for our ancestors to learn to adapt and survive. Stereotyping creates general rules that we can access through memory when we are presented with something that we need to interact with, and people use stereotypes to interpret their surroundings. However, when people use stereotyping against groups of people who may be different from them, it can create negative prejudices. Many social psychologists have studied prejudices and what types of psychological tools that can be used to bypass prejudices. Stereotyping is a cognitive process of several prejudiced attitudes†¦show more content†¦(Devine, 1989, p. 5-6) One main question about stereotyping is how much of it is in our memory, and how much it effects how we see other people. Patricia Devine, a researcher at the University of Wisconsin focused her studies on the different components of stereotypes and prejudices. In her first study, she had 40 white psychology students put into groups of 4-6, isolated to control for anonymity. They were told that the experimenter was not looking for their personal beliefs, but was looking for their knowledge of cultural stereotypes. The participants were told to keep their biased beliefs aside, and were then told to write lists of stereotypes to identify what they knew of the topic. Then they completed a seven item Modern Racism Scale, which is used to measure negative Black attitudes in an unresponsive way. The scale predicts behaviors such as voting patterns and other racial based decisions. After they were finished, they were rated as high-prejudice or low prejudice. They found that there was no di fference in stereotype knowledge and their prejudices. (Devine, 1989, p. 8) This suggest that people with high and low prejudice have equal amount of knowledge of cultural stereotypes, but interpret them in different ways. In Devine’s second study, they were looking at automatic processes and stereotype priming effects for people with high and low prejudice beliefs. Duncan (1976) hypothesized that that people’s stereotype belief that African American’s

Friday, May 15, 2020

Speech to Inform - 8146 Words

Speech To Inform Speech to inform:Euro-2012 In April 2007, Ukraine and Poland were named co-hosts for Euro 2012 tournament. This joint bid, taking into account Ukraines tough economic condition and administration problems, has become a headache for UEFA President Michel Platini. The matches will be staged at eight venues, divided between the co-host countries. Ukraine is behind the schedule, having problems with modernization of airports, roads, and rail networks. As a co-host country, Poland seems to be doing better than Ukraine. Yet, it also has lots of problems. Platini made it clear that without modern stadiums in capital cities, Warsaw and Kiev, neither Poland nor Ukraine would host Euro-2012. Platini persuades Europe that football†¦show more content†¦It is savage-like and inhuman, for it values neither the life of a freedom fighter nor the life of a victim who is killed or badly injured only because he or she happened to be in the target place. Terrorists kill to obtain public exposure. The United States has defined the anti-terrorist priority measures. They include chemical plant security, transit security, terrorism risk insurance, disaster response, nuclear waste, and drinking water safety. It is hard to curb terrorism for several reasons. First, terrorists are well organized and have a strong network which is tied by fanatic faith in their cause. Second, terrorists are unseen. They are scattered all over the world, arranging terrorist attacks in unpredictable places. Third, terrorists are outrageous and resolute, fearless and stubborn to give their lives for their cause. Fourth, terrorists have support of the civilians who are on their side. Terrorism is our nightmare, unseen danger that may cost us our life. Terrorism is a criminal act, since no fight for justice can be justified by murders of innocent people. Without extricating the roots of terrorism, our governments will never achieve positive results. Terrorism is a response to oppression, poverty, and discrimination. When human rights are universally respected, terrorism will not have a justifiable soil under its feet. Cultivate love, not hate in your heart. TryShow MoreRelatedSpeech to Inform964 Words   |  4 PagesDivinity General Purpose: How to Specific Purpose: How to make chocolate fudge Central Idea: Fudge is a unique sweet invented by the Americans that can be made by just a couple of steps. INTRODUCTION I. Did you ever wonder how grandma made that amazing holiday treat fudge? II. Today I am going to tell you where the holiday treat, fudge, came from, what you need to make traditional chocolate fudge, and how to make fudge. BODY I. The wonderful holiday treat all began right here in your homeRead MoreSpeech to Inform: Twitter1843 Words   |  8 PagesInformative Speech Outline General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of how Twitter has changed the way we communicate Central Idea: Twitter has revolutionized the way people all around the world communicate, bringing the entire world into the same conversation within seconds. I. Introduction In the last century, the world has been introduced to many new modes of communication, some more revolutionary than others. In the past twenty years we have seen several that haveRead MoreSpeech to Inform on Video Games Essay1099 Words   |  5 PagesFor almost a century, video games have shaped not just our country, but the whole world. An entire industry was developed and it continues to thrive, even in our rough economic times. Some people fall into the clutches of games’ $60 (or more) price tags, while others wait for titles to drop into the bargain bin. But no matter how you purchase them, video games have become much more than just ways to pass the time. They make us laugh. They make us cry. They make us want to scream in anger and punchRead MoreSpeech Inform Health Benefit of Coconut7894 Words   |  32 PagesHealth Benefits of Coconut 69 rate or flag this pageTweet this Coconut is a tropical fruit that is rich in protein. The meat of the coconut is very good in destroying intestinal parasites, that we get from eating infected food. Coconut water is good for kidney and urinary bladder problems. [pic] Matured Coconut Nutritive Values : Per 100 gm. †¢ Vitamin A : †¢ Vitamin B : Thiamine .10 mg.; †¢ Riboflavin : †¢ Niacin : †¢ Vitamin C : 2 mg. †¢ Calcium : 21 mg. †¢ Iron : 2.0 mg. †¢ PhosphorusRead MoreSpeech Preparation Essay586 Words   |  3 PagesSpeech Preparation Reflection Alicia Ramos COM/110 April 25, 2016 Linda Price Speech Preparation Reflection The best way to prepare for a presentation, one must consider the best method, the type of presentation and the audience for a given topic. There are four different types of presentation methods they are; Impromptu, Extemporaneous Speaking, Using a Manuscript, and Memorization. Each of the four methods is appropriate in certain situations. Impromptu is a speech that frequently involvesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Lucas s The Art Of Public Speaking936 Words   |  4 PagesStephen Lucas the Art of Public Speaking, I have learned that Lisa is a public speaker and is using her public speaking skills to inform her coworkers. Chapter 15 is about speaking to inform an audience. Lucas begins this chapter with the types of informative speeches and some analysis and organization skills for each topic. There are many ways to classify an informative speech, Lucas breaks it down into four main topics: objects, processes, events, and concepts. Lucas begins this chapter by speakingRead MoreSp eech : African American Communities About The Hypocrisy Of The Church982 Words   |  4 PagesFrederick Douglas wrote this speech to inform not just the African American communities about the hypocrisy of the church; he wanted to inform everyone on how prejudices Christians in the 19 centuries were towards black people. He wanted to enlighten the African Americans who follow Christianism blindly and don’t even realize that were being treated as if they were leapers. While the motto of the church is that everyone is equal in the place of worship and â€Å"love thy neighbor† is Jesus message toRead MoreFree Speech on College Campuses Essay1250 Words   |  5 PagesKenzie Winkler Due: May 16th 2011 WR 122/ Wilde Final Essay #2 Importance of ‘Free Speech’ College is a time when most individuals are experiencing major changes and begin to explore new perspectives. The transition in becoming more independent, creating new insights and peer influence are key factors in changing the perspective of an individual. Students are faced with new ideas from their professors, family and fellow peers. Through that acquired knowledge many students decide that they eitherRead MoreAnalysis Of Rashida Jones s Speech862 Words   |  4 Pagesimportance of passion in a speech. To persuade an audience, the speaker must incorporate passion and meaningful body language in order to convince people of their beliefs. If the speaker fails to present a clean speech, the audience may lose concentration and become unaffected. Brenà © Brown presented a speech with intentions of persuading the listeners that vulnerability is normal and common in everyday life. Sugata Mitra offered a persuasive speech in which he was attempting to inform the crowd of childrenâ€⠄¢sRead MoreDescribe with Examples the Importance of Recognising and Responding to Concerns About Children and Young People’s Development.1091 Words   |  5 Pagescause concern about a child or young person’s development. If the problem was left untreated then things could get worse, and a delay in treatment could mean that the outcome is not as good as it would have been if treatment was started earlier. 1. Speech / Language. If a child or young person does not talk to anyone or even only speaks a few words compared to others, this may cause concern. This would socially affect the child or young person’s because they would find it hard to make friends,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Employee Handbook Privacy Section - 1397 Words

Introduction to Employee Privacy Rights This section of the employee handbook is provided as a guideline for employees to understand the company policy and procedures regarding privacy in the workplace. While this section cannot address every possible scenario that may occur, the general policy will serve as a basis of understanding the key workplace issues and employee privacy. This section addresses privacy issues related to personal background information, off-work activities, and the corporate policy on the use of electronic monitoring. These privacy policies are designed to both provide a clear guideline for employees on the difference between job related and personal privacy. The policies are designed to create a standard set of†¦show more content†¦A companys privacy protection can limit the companys liability in many ways. By monitoring employees work and progression, a company can ensure that the employee is being productive. By monitoring an employees productivity, the company can ensure that employee is performing all their job duties and performing them correctly. If performed incorrectly, the company may be held responsible. Companies can also monitor employees to ensure all employees are using the companys assets for company related reasons and not conducting any personal or illegal activities that can potentially harm the company. If an employee was conducting personal business or illegal activities by using the companys assets, the company may be held responsible and face legal charges and/or loss. A companys privacy protection can enhance employee motivation and productivity because by knowing that the managers are monitoring their productivity, computers, systems, etc at all time, employees will ensure they are being proactive. In addition, employees will ensure they are not using any company assets for personal gain or knowledge because they are aware someone is monitoring them at all times. Privacy Definitions and Scope Privacy, as used in this document, refers to any of the four separate, but related, following concepts. Information privacyShow MoreRelatedA Guide For All Permanent Employees Of The Firm850 Words   |  4 PagesPurpose This Handbook is considered as a guide for all permanent employees of the firm. This Handbook includes general and specific conditions and terms of the employee wellbeing, occupational health service, safety and welfare. This handbook is intended to provide employees of our company with a general understanding of the human resources policies. As an employee who are encouraged to familiar with the contents of this handbook. It will give employees the answer of various common questions whichRead MoreFederal Administrative Law And The Department Of Education1185 Words   |  5 Pagespromote improvement in the education system by creating programs that impact all levels of education (An Overview of the U.S. Department of Education, n.d., para 11-12). The ED established the federal law known as the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA provides parents with rights to access their child’s education records while protecting the information located in the student s’ educational record from misuse. The United States Department of Health and Human ServicesRead MoreEthical Issues Of Fice Essay1146 Words   |  5 Pagesscenario, my employee has access to all personal data of the employees at my company. She used the private information to gain women’s email addresses and date of births, and she is also in a relationship with the supervisor. Due to this, she gets the best hours, and doesn’t get in trouble for making mistakes on her reports. The problem I need to solve as a manager is having to deal with an employee who has access to all personal data of the employees and abusing it. My employee also has a relationshipRead MoreJessica s Business Code Of Ethics1277 Words   |  6 Pagesand communication. Be modest. Standard Operating Procedures and Policies This section will establish the current code of conduct and standard operating procedure expectations of all employees of Jessica s Company (The Company) whether full or part-time employed. 1. Law-abiding Conduct We at The Company respect all state and federal laws. It is the wish of our company to demand that each and every employee at The Company respect all state and federal laws likewise. Our commitment to actingRead MoreEssay Consensual Relationship1258 Words   |  6 Pagesthe romance relationships between employees at the work place. Great deals of individuals have opinions about consensual relationships agreements. My opinion is that the agreement should be signed by every employee and this procedure would be more effective for the organizational and employee. This study is conducted based on the hypothetical research and subordinate sources of data. (Her Campus, 2013) Consensual Relationship Agreement Arguments: Consensual Relationship Agreements policies andRead MoreHcs430 Employees Handbook Essay1732 Words   |  7 PagesEmployee Handbook Non-Discrimination XXX HCS/430 – Legal Issues in Health Care: Regulations and Compliance University of Phoenix CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY: I  certify that  the attached  paper is my original work and has not previously been submitted by me or anyone else for any class.  I further declare I have cited all sources from which I used  language, ideas, and information,  whether quoted  verbatim or paraphrased, and that any assistance of any kind, which I received while producingRead MoreCase Analysis : Employee Handbook1415 Words   |  6 PagesEmployee Handbook Company X has become a leader in providing group health insurance benefits to businesses all over the United States. We strive to give superior coverage at cost effective rates while providing excellent customer service to our members. The employee handbook is a reference tool for all employees as a guide on company standards and procedures as well as expectations of codes of conduct. Any questions about the information provided in the employee handbook should be directed toRead MoreGroup Principles And Standards Of Conduct1583 Words   |  7 PagesEach one of Bulsho Group’s employees must conduct themselves in a manner consistent we those standards. Bulsho Group also expects its valued employs to create each other for hospitable and reliability work place environment: We expect every employee to show up on time for work, dress appropriately, perform your work appropriately, and always practice your tasks safe. Your team members expect you to show up on time for work. They also expect you to be respectful and show positive attitude toRead MoreAn Hrm Perspective on Employee Participation12695 Words   |  51 PagesThe Oxford Handbook of Participation in Organizations Paul J. Gollan, David Lewin, Mick Marchington, and Adrian Wilkinson Print publication date: May 2010 Print ISBN-13: 9780199207268 Published to Oxford Handbooks Online: May-10 Subject: Business and Management, Human Resource Management, Organizational Theory and Behaviour DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199207268.001.0001 An HRM Perspective on Employee Participation Peter Boxall, John Purcell DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199207268.003.0002 Read MoreEmployee Rights Essay1530 Words   |  7 Pagesmaking certain you are benefiting from the rights you are entitled. You will be amazed at how few rights you have in the work place! Most states are at-will states; meaning there is no right to work. An employer has no obligation to keep you as an employee and does not need much of a reason to let you go. Discrimination in the Workplace There are a few laws governing what an employer may, or may not, do. It is important that you know what these few laws are. Compliance requirements vary depending

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

African culture free essay sample

An approach to African studies will be summarized within this essay. Each chapter encompasses a detailed explanation from African cultures to economical struggles and much more. These 10 chapters will include a brief introduction and summary of African societies, Power, Descent from the same ancestor, Contracting an alliance, Government, Repetitive and dynamic models, Inequality, Dependence relations, Association, and Exchange of Goods. Chapter 1 This chapter introduces the audience into an overall summary of African relationships and explains to us the social horizons of the interaction amongst the people. An area called the â€Å" Black Africa† separates and divides between two cultural worlds. Amongst this â€Å"Black Africa† region, we can conclude that a cultural community exists. The concept of global societies explains to us the state of society in the age of globalization. This â€Å"Global Society† contains both men and women, and is passed on to many generations, from learning the cultural ways ancestors have passed down, to an overall guide of how to live an everyday life until one dies. It is proven that relationships can exists between the members of two different societies. There are Seven institutionalized societal relations and they are Kinship, Alliance, Government, Inequality and Equality, Feudality, Association, and Exchange of Goods. These roles are a guide of a superiority and inferiority statuses. Chapter 2 This chapter opens into the topic of â€Å"Power.† Power is an important key factor for an individual or within a group. People with power has an advantage of having a better life than others, to have power is also a key to enjoying the better things in life and survival. There is such a thing as â€Å"power over nature, oneself and others within production; agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, industry, etc†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Aborisade 34). With power, one can produce an influential affect within a group or individual. In this case, an environmental, and industrial change can result from an individual with power. This chapter concludes with pressure within power such as an individual being a loyal subject within a social relationship and having to resist against an individuals own will. Chapter 3 This chapter opens into the â€Å"Descent from the same ancestor.† Kinship is an importance within the African culture. Kinship network gives power and strength within a group because of the social connections within a group’s individual life. The kinship system was such an importance within the traditional African culture because they believed in one line that divides into two categories; that could either be the â€Å"paternal line or maternal line†(Aborisade 39). The kinship network is important to an individual if that individual is in a lineage that holds power within previous and current generations; it could influence and acquire useful support when needed. Whether past or present, modern African cities now still uses kinship as a way of competition for power. Chapter 4 This chapter introduces us into â€Å"Contracting an alliance.† Marriage between two people shows the importance between the ties of lineage, power, alliance, and politics within the African culture. Marriage in Africa is known to be defined as â€Å"the legitimate descendants of the lineage who discharged the matrimonial debt† (Aborisade 72). A woman bears children for the family to tie the lineage of the family, and possibly gain power, and political alliance. Modern day African society has changed in a sense that marriage is no longer tied to hoes and cattle’s that is defined in bridewealth, but rather cash; and modern day women can hold steady through economic independence. In rural Africa, marriage for lineal alliances continues but less pressure is placed on women having to work for their husbands. Chapter 5 This chapter introduces us into the â€Å"Government.† â€Å"African government was always monarchical† (Aborisade 90); like many other cultures, a king or chief is always needed to sustain a political system. These â€Å"chiefdoms and kingdoms† (Aborisade 90), were widely dispersed across Black Africa. The government system is controlled by rulers and subjects and displayed a very noble image within the monarchy. For example, a king would sacrifice himself to prevent a community disaster due to any signs of weakness that is shown within the society. Kings and nobilities were very sacred and held such an important stature for the people. The rulers would make decisions in public affairs and any external threat, security, or defense. Management of industrial production such as hospitals, medical services and economic infrastructure; would also be managed by a ruler of that region. Within the nineteenth century, a new approach replaced the traditional political system and the â€Å"Supreme ruler is the president† (Aborisade 114). Chapter 6 This chapter addresses to us the â€Å"Repetitive and dynamic models† that the â€Å"Black Africa† system has informed us about within the last 5 chapters. This chapter focuses on the traditional, colonial and independent models of the political network. As stated within the text, â€Å"from the traditional to the colonial model, and from there to the independent model, we see that there is an increase in governmental tasks† (133). This simply defines the fact that in order for these three factors to exist, the political system has to operate efficiently to maintain the political system effectively. An increase in government task means that services that are economically assessable through; for example, â€Å"construction, medical/hospital services and natural resources† (134), obtained for money are increasing economically. Chapter 7 This chapter covers the topic of â€Å"Inequality.† Throughout the ages, inequality has been shown in many different ways. In certain areas of the many kingdoms in Africa, there were many groups that belonged within each kingdom and they were distinguished by names. This created an inequality, which applies to the four networks of stratification. Caste and classes are determined by being born into a system. These four networks offered different cultures and societal needs as well as each class were classified into a hierarchical group. This chapter concludes that a â€Å"relation of superiority is not necessarily a relation to power† (189). Chapter 8 This chapter focuses on â€Å"Dependence relations.† Dependent is relying, needing or having someone or something for aid. Dependence is often unavoidable and dependence is often used within many relationships between people; where it is to gain power, for love, friendship or any kind of relationship. Dependence plays a role in societal relations. Clientship and feudality is expressed in this chapter, in conclusion; â€Å"feudal dependence is institutionalized while the dependence of clientship is not† (196). Chapter 9 â€Å"Association† is the key factor in this chapter. Association is defined as â€Å"permanent groups of people with organized activities† (220). Association is also a bond and an agreement amongst a group to comply and follow the rules that have been established. If a rule has been violated, actions must take place in order for the violator to be held accountable. An association is generally a group created for various goals whether it be religious, political, etc, also an association can be a threat to rulers due to its strong beliefs and power to achieve their goals. Associations in modern Africa now are still â€Å"outlawed† (230) by rulers and even till today, associations remain on close watch. Chapter 10 The last chapter of this book talks about the â€Å"Exchange of goods.† Exchange of goods is an importance within the social relations because it allows a bond and close interaction between two sides and will develop and create benefits between the two parties. The economic relations between the modern Africans and traditional Africans remain the same as exchange still plays a huge role within the economic network. The selling, benefiting, and trade between two parties remains to gain political and economic power. In conclusion, the 10 chapters within this book summarize African studies for an audience to be informed about the general culture, political, and economical lives of the African society. Works Cited Aborisade. Pan Africanism/ Global Connections. n.d.

Monday, April 13, 2020

10 Basic Chemistry Facts You Should Know

10 Basic Chemistry Facts You Should Know There are certain facts that every chemistry buff should know - how many of these fun and interesting facts do you already have stored in your brain? Test Your Knowledge With These 10 Chemistry Facts Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. It is a physical science that is closely related to physics, which often shares the same definition.Chemistry traces its roots back to the ancient study of alchemy. Chemistry and alchemy are separate now, though alchemy still is practiced today.All matter is made up of the chemical elements, which are distinguished from each other by the numbers of protons they possess.The chemical elements are organized in order of increasing atomic number into the periodic table. The first element in the periodic table is hydrogen.Each element in the periodic table has a one or two-letter symbol. The only letter in the English alphabet not used on the periodic table is J. The letter q only appears in the symbol for the placeholder name for element 114, ununquadium, which has the symbol Uuq. When element 114 is officially discovered, it will be given a new name.At room temperature, there are only two liquid elements. Thes e are bromine and mercury. The IUPAC name for water, H2O, is dihydrogen monoxide.Most elements are metals and most metals are silver-colored or gray. The only non-silver metals are gold and copper.The discoverer of an element may give it a name. There are elements named for people (Mendelevium, Einsteinium), places (Californium, Americium) and other things.Although you may consider gold to be rare, there is enough gold in the Earths crust to cover the land surface of the planet knee-deep.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

The Relationship between termites and aardvarks essays

The Relationship between termites and aardvarks essays One of the most specialized carnivores found on Boekenhoutkloof farm is the aardwolf which dines most exclusively on harvester termites, namely Trinervitermes This species is responsible for the fantastic "ant heaps" that are seen in the bushveld and consist of four different classes. They are workers, soldiers, kings queens and winged allates. The aardwolf targets mainly the workers because of their size and easy access when foraging. Therefore it is interesting to note that the aardwolf follows the same feeding patterns as the termite. The workers work mainly in the evening and the aardwolf is a nocturnal species. The aardwolf finds his or her quarry through smell .Once it finds the prey he laps up the working termites. The aardwolf obviously consumes a lot of sand and other objects. This is shown in their faeces which contain many foreign and indigestible Once the remaining workers have retreated to the mound, the soldiers viciously attack the aardwolf and squirt specially developed noxious , terpene based substances at the aardwolf. He then moves on to find more unsuspecting workers. It is easy to see the exoskeletons of the termites in the aardwolf's faeces. This is a good example of loss of energy through trophic levels. The worker termites harvest and dry out Russet grass for food. It has been estimated that a population removes about the same amount of grass as domestic livestock. The termites population in Boekenhout ensures the survival of the red data species of the aardwolf. Thus, these mammals are only present if the termite population is wide enough. ...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Humanities Ethics Research paper on Embryonic stem cell research

Humanities Ethics on Embryonic stem cell - Research Paper Example Research on the ES cells has then brought to the fore certain considerations with regard to human ethics. For the research to take place, the human embryo has to be harvested in order to investigate the phenomenon of interests. A balance cannot however be established between succeeding in helping another life using the embryo as it continues to exist. What are the ethical dilemmas involved in the embryonic stem cell researches? Despite the hot debate that surrounds the research use of embryonic stem cells, they offer better opportunity for harnessing certain therapies. Due to the controversy, most of the countries have adopted their own different rules that regulate the application of the Human Embryonic cells in research. Opinion is divided on what the value of human life is and the life of the embryo. It then exudes an ethical dilemma that complicates the application of the ES cells in solving most of the clinical problems (James, 45). The moral dilemma establishes a situation in w hich a choice has to be made from the two existing sensitive options. One, there is the duty prevent or relieve patients from chronic pains and two, the duty to respect the inherent value of human life. ... It has been however been difficult to approve one option vis-a-vis the other. The arguments then goes that it is not ethical to destroy embryo given the fact that they possess full moral status beginning from fertilization and as they progresses through maturity. Others observe that an embryo should be considered as a person despite the fact that it is still an embryo (James, 45). They espouse the retention of life of the embryo by stating that there is a continuous process involved in the life of an embryo beginning from fertilization. They note that just like an infant is considered a human being then is the embryo. The argument goes further that people would tend to dismiss the significance of an embryo as a person just because they do not have the characteristics of a human being (Holland, 43). This should not be the angle of justifications because through the process of growth, the embryo will develop the said attributes. They concur that it is arbitrary to determine the period or stage when personhood commences, hence an embryo should not be dismissed as not being a person (Holland, 43). However, another explosive counter argument has continued to make decisions on the ES cells application very difficult. It explains that an embryo lacks the justification levels of being described as a person (Holland, 43). This is because unlike humans they do not have emotional, psychological and physical properties exhibited by humans or persons. As such there is no interest at all that is demonstrated by the embryo to regard protection and should be used to help persons who are in deeper pains with their lives hanging on the balance (James, 45). Another argument indicates a â€Å"cut-off† point at 14